#30: EV versus ICEV Lifecycle Carbon Emissions

Polarizing Articles:

Buchal, C., Jülich, H.-D. K., & Sinn, H.-W. (2019, April 25). Kohlemotoren, Windmotoren und Dieselmotoren: Was zeigt die CO2-Bilanz? ifo Schnelldienst 08/2019, 72. Jahrgang, 40–54.

Electric Car Myth Buster—Well-To-Wheel Emissions. (2018, February 19). Retrieved November 28, 2019, from CleanTechnica website:

Erläuterungen zur Studie: Was zeigt die CO2-Bilanz? | Hans-Werner Sinn. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2019, from

Jun 21, C. R. · P., & June 21, 2019 5:14 PM ET | Last Updated: (2019, June 21). Do electric cars take more CO2 to build than they save? | CBC Radio. Retrieved November 28, 2019, from CBC website:

Todts, W. (2019, November 26). Yes, electric vehicles really are better than fossil fuel burners. The Guardian. Retrieved from

Welle (, D. (n.d.). Ifo study casts doubt on electric vehicles’ climate-saving credentials | DW | 25.04.2019. Retrieved November 27, 2019, from DW.COM website:

Studies about battery production:

McManus, M. C. (2012). Environmental consequences of the use of batteries in low carbon systems: The impact of battery production. Applied Energy, 93, 288–295.

Peters, J. F., Baumann, M., Zimmermann, B., Braun, J., & Weil, M. (2017). The environmental impact of Li-Ion batteries and the role of key parameters – A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 67, 491–506.

Romare, M., & Dahllöf, L. (2017). The Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Batteries. 58.

Lifecycle analyses:

Bickert, S., Kampker, A., & Greger, D. (2015). Developments of CO2-emissions and costs for small electric and combustion engine vehicles in Germany. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 36, 138–151.

Falcão, E. A. M., Teixeira, A. C. R., & Sodré, J. R. (2017). Analysis of CO2 emissions and techno-economic feasibility of an electric commercial vehicle. Applied Energy, 193, 297–307.

Fritz, D., Heinfellner, H., Lichtblau, G., Pölz, W., & Schodl, B. (2016). Ökobilanz alternativer Antriebe: Fokus Elektrofahrzeuge. Wien: Umweltbundesamt.

Fritz, D., Heinfellner, H., Lichtblau, G., Pölz, W., & Stranner, G. (2018). Update: Ökobilanz Alternativer Antriebe (p. 16). Wien: Umweltbundesamt.

Granovskii, M., Dincer, I., & Rosen, M. A. (2006). Economic and environmental comparison of conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Journal of Power Sources, 159(2), 1186–1193.

Helms, H., Jöhrens, J., & Lambrecht, U. (2016). Elektrofahrzeug und Verbrenner im Umweltcheck. ifeu.

Le Petit, Y. (2017). Electric vehicle life cycle analysis and raw material availability. Retrieved from Transport & Environment website:

Messagie, M., Boureima, F.-S., Coosemans, T., Macharis, C., & Mierlo, J. (2014). A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels. Energies, 7(3), 1467–1482.

Mitropoulos, L. K., Prevedouros, P. D., & Kopelias, P. (2017). Total cost of ownership and externalities of conventional, hybrid and electric vehicle. Transportation Research Procedia, 24, 267–274.

Nordelöf, A., Messagie, M., Tillman, A.-M., Ljunggren Söderman, M., & Van Mierlo, J. (2014). Environmental impacts of hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles—What can we learn from life cycle assessment? The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 19(11), 1866–1890.

Van Mierlo, J., Messagie, M., & Rangaraju, S. (2017). Comparative environmental assessment of alternative fueled vehicles using a life cycle assessment. Transportation Research Procedia, 25, 3435–3445.

Other Sources:

Argonne GREET Model. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2019, from

CO2eq | Climate Policy Info Hub. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2019, from

Electric vehicles, second life batteries, and their effect on the power sector | McKinsey. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2019, from

Fact Sheet: Energy Storage (2019) | White Papers | EESI. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2019, from

Ghorbanzadeh, M., Astaneh, M., & Golzar, F. (2019). Long-term degradation based analysis for lithium-ion batteries in off-grid wind-battery renewable energy systems. Energy, 166, 1194–1206.

Switching to a home battery won’t help save the world from climate change. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2019, from

Wade, A. (2016, November 7). Carbon footprint of solar panels under microscope. Retrieved November 27, 2019, from website:

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